15 Abr Withdrawal Agreement Protocol Ireland
The “backstop” would have required northern Ireland to remain in certain aspects of the internal market until an alternative agreement between the EU and the UK is concluded. The proposal also provided that the UK as a whole would have a common customs territory with the EU until a solution was found to avoid the need for customs controls in the UK (between Northern Ireland and Great Britain). The “backstop” element was that if the UK and the EU did not agree on another agreement, for example on a trade agreement between the UK and the EU at the end of the transition period, the agreement could continue to apply indefinitely. In October 2019, the new Johnson government renegotiated the project and replaced the backstop. Under the new protocol, the whole of the UK leaves the EU customs union as a single customs territory. Northern Ireland will be included in the UK`s future trade agreements, but will not have tariffs or restrictions on goods crossing the Irish border in both directions, creating a de facto customs border in the Irish Sea with Britain. There is also a unilateral exit mechanism for the Northern Ireland Assembly to leave the protocol by a simple majority.    This new protocol has been described as “Chequers for Northern Ireland” by some, as it is comparable to the British plan for future relations of Theresa May`s Chequers, previously rejected by the EU and criticised by Johnson.  The Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland will come into force at the end of the transitional period. It was designed as a stable and sustainable solution and can be expected to apply alongside any agreement on the future partnership. The border is a sensitive issue because of the history of Northern Ireland and peace evacuation agreements, including the elimination of visible signs of the border. Customs subject to the provisions of the protocol on cessation and amendments, The EU/UK customs union of the annex applies to goods: manufactured on the customs territory of the European Union or on the customs territory of the United Kingdom, including all or partly retained or obtained from goods from third countries that […] On 23 June 2016, the UK voted in a referendum to leave the EU.
On 29 March 2017, Theresa May, then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, wrote to european Council President Donald Tusk triggering Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, triggering the process for a member state to leave the EU. The Article 50 procedure provides for a two-year period for the negotiation of a withdrawal agreement which should take into account future relations between the EU and the outgoing Member State. At the request of the United Kingdom, the Article 50 deadline was finally extended until 31 January 2020.